Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Greek Unity Essays

Greek Unity Essays Greek Unity Essay Greek Unity Essay There is much treatment over whether it was Grecian integrity that caused the triumph against the Persians in the old ages 490BC-479BC. The three chief points of position on the affair is that they were non united at all. which can be seen from the histories of Herodotus. that they were united. which can be seen in the Themistocles Decree and that it was Themistocles himself that made them unified. It is on the research of Herodotus that we rely most to a great extent on for our information of the Persian War period. He is frequently criticised for his inaccuracy. prejudice and failure to measure events decently. Unfortunately there is no other major antediluvian beginning against which bookmans can look into his facts. Plutarch writes about him with blasphemy and slander prevarication beneath his smooth. delicate surface and we must mind of unconsciously accepting his false and absurd thoughts about the greats noblest metropoliss and work forces of Greece. He is by and large dependable when it comes to the chief events. even though he is prone to overstate the size of the Iranian ground forcess brought against Greece. He is non. nevertheless. as utile when it comes to analysis. peculiarly his opinions about causes for events or tactics in conflicts. He openly declares his esteem for Athens and his histories are mostly written from the Athenian point of position. However. it must be remembered that he received his information at a clip when Athens and Sparta were hostile to one another. after 464. This could be a conducive factor as to why he writes as if there wasn’t integrity between the Greeks. : Herodotus dismisses the thought that the Greeks were of all time unified. In his Hagiographas he gives eternal illustrations of how the Greeks fought with each other invariably. He describes graft. perfidy and blackmail amongst the Grecian cantonments. One of these descriptions is that of Ephilates who showed the Persians the secret base on balls to the Spartans in the conflict of Thermopylae. He believed that if the Greeks were really unified. it was inadvertent and neer planned. Some modern historiographers tend to hold with this sentiment. In the conflict of Marathon. a Iranian armada of 600 ships embarked on an invasion force of about 20. 000 foot and horse on Grecian dirt merely north of Athens. Their mission was to oppress the Grecian provinces in revenge for their support of their Ionian cousins who had revolted against Iranian regulation. Athens mobilized 10. 000 hoplite warriors to support their districts. The two ground forcess met on the Plain of Marathon which was ideal for Iranian horse. The Athenians asked the Spartans for assistance in the conflict but harmonizing to Herodotus. the Spartans were unable to come directly off as they had their spiritual festival on at the clip ; And the Spartans wished to assist the Athenians. but were unable to give them any present relief. as they did non like to interrupt their established jurisprudence. They did state that they would come every bit shortly as it was over every bit rapidly as they could which shows the integrity at the clip between Athens and Sparta. the two chief forces at the clip. When Athens was in demand. Sparta would come to assist. Herodotus states After the full of the Moon. two thousand Lacedaemonians came to Athens. So eager had they been to get in clip that they took but three yearss to make Attica from Sparta. But it wasn’t integrity that helped the Greeks win this conflict. they were at a little advantage as they had cognition of their land unlike the Persians who had no apprehension of the Grecian geographics as it was really different to their ain. The Greek knew the Plain of Marathon good and could utilize the rugged land and the mountains environing the field to their advantage. The Athenians kept in the high land whereas the Persians stationed themselves on the field. Another thing that helped the Greeks win was the absence of the Persian horse when the Athenians decided to assail. The horse was one of the elect units of the Iranian ground forces and. if it were present at the conflict. would most likely have caused the Persians to win. There are two theories as to why the horse weren’t at that place. The first being that the Persians had ordered the horse back onto the Iranian ships. possibly to sail around the Grecian ground forces and assail them from behind. The 2nd being that the Equus caballuss were off eating grass and the Persians couldn’t acquire them to the conflict in clip. Harmonizing to Bury. the Spartans didn’t truly desire to travel to Thermopylae which suggests that the Greeks weren’t unified. This is presuming that the end of this conflict was to win and non a keeping program. Bury states that the Spartans attempted to cover his [ Leonidas ] selfish and short-sighted policy by the supplication that they were hindered from processing Forth in full force by the jubilation of the Carnean festival proposing that the Spartans did non desire to direct a full ground forces to assist the Athenians. But harmonizing to most historiographers. the purpose at Thermopylae was to keep the Iranian ground forces back while the Greece forces ready themselves at the Isthmus. Buckley states The Iranian ground forces could non be defeated in such a place. but it’s progress could be held up indefinately. This shows that the Greeks had a program and cognize precisely what they were making. Leonidas’ determination to remain and decease with the 300 Spartans is said to hold been in the vain hope that the Persian force that had travelled down the way might itself be trapped between the 300 Spartans and the chief Greek force South of Thermopylae. This shows integrity between the Greek provinces against Persia regulation. Herodotus suggested that it was because of the prognostication that Sparta would be plundered unless a Spartan male monarch died. While the events at Thermopylae were blossoming. a limited and indecisive naval battle took topographic point at Artemisium. If either side gained an advantage in this conflict. modern historiographers would state that it was likely the Persians. Nevertheless. a storm blew up and inflicted harm on both fleets. In this case. the Persians became the also-rans. This conflict lessened the Persian fleet which subsequently proved as an advantage to the Greeks in the conflict of Salamis. During this conflict the Athenians gave up their leading place as they knew that they would hold better opportunities if person else was to take. This scheme used besides shows integrity between the Greeks. Herodotus states that The Athenians waived their claim in the involvement of national endurance. cognizing that a wrangle about the bid would surely intend the devastation of Greece. The Themistocles Decree shows a planned lineation of the Athenian emptying proposing that it was the program the whole clip and that the conflicts of Thermopylae and Artemisium were to keep the Persians back. This besides suggests integrity between the Greeks as they follow the program Troezen letterings say before Thermopylae. The decree provinces that Who live in Athens shall put [ their kids and adult females ] on Troezen – the Founder of the land. [ The aged and ( movable ) ] belongings shall ( for safety ) be deposited at Salamis. [ the Treasurers and ] the Priestesss are [ to stay ] on the Acropolis [ and guard the ownerships of the ] Gods. The remainder of Athenians in their entireness and those foreigners who have reached immature manhood shall ship [ on the readied ] two hundred stores and they shall repel the [ Barbarian for the interest of ] autonomy. If this edict was in fact sound. it shows that the Greeks were intentionally unified. Besides. the Hellenic League is recorded to hold held many conferences at Corinth to discourse their schemes against the Persians. This indicates that the Greeks were organized and prepared to work together to destruct the Persians. Themistocles is said to be one of the most superb and advanced leaders of Athens. Thucydides describes him as a adult male who showed an unmistakable natural mastermind ; in this regard he was rather exceeding. and beyond all others deserves our esteem. He believed that when the Persians came in greater force the lone manner that they would cut off their supply lines was by get the better ofing them at sea. He besides knew that Athens future ballad with the sea. Herodotus and Aeschylus present Themistocles as the superb leader who fooled the hapless Xerxes into contending in the narrow Waterss of the passs of Salamis. He seemingly sent a courier sitting as treasonist to Xerxes to state him that the Greek fleet was about to withdraw and that unless he acted. they would acquire off. Themistocles convinced the Greeks that contending in the narrows would favor the smaller and heavier Greek fleet as combat in the Isthmus would favor the greater figure of Persians. He besides convinced them that a licking for the Persians at Salamis would halt the ground forces progressing to the Isthmus. By making this. he helped the Greeks greatly and harmonizing to Thucydides. saved the Peloponnese. Some historiographers say that the controversy that took topographic point between the different Greek leaders which shows disunity was really planned. They say that the statements were staged because of Iranian undercover agents who were listening in. The undercover agents would so travel back to Xerxes and state him that the Greeks had no opportunity of winning against the Persians as all they did was fight with each other. Hammond provinces that the conflict of Plataea was the finest accomplishments of Grecian integrity. Approximately 23 provinces had taken an curse of chumminess to contend together until the Iranian encroachers were destroyed. and for around three hebdomads over 100. 000 Greeks had faced utmost troubles. They had resisted the onslaughts of the Persians and their Alliess. There were menaces to integrity during those hebdomads. but it was a national confederation. nevertheless short lived. The Serpentine Column. now located in Turkey. is archeological grounds that suggests that the Greeks were unified. The column shows all the Grecian cit-states that were in the Hellenic conference and helped contend against the Persians. The list goes from most of import to least of import. Although it is difficult to state whether the Greeks were unified or non. it is clear that when the crunch clip came. they all pulled together and succeeded in get the better ofing the Persians. As Thucydides says. It was by common attempt that the foreign was repelled.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Prints Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Prints - Essay Example The lines of the frames of the structure in the portraits can be used to illustrate just how irregular lines on artworks resulting from etching can be. Despite the fact that the structure is supposed to have some uniformity in terms of thickness of lines, this is not the case for this portrait. Portraits made from etching also make sure that there are some parts of the art materials that are not reached by the ink. This is because of the ground,which is acid resistant. The surfaces of the metal that are covered by ground are not eroded. In the portrait it can be seen that there is a significant portion of the portrait that are unaffected by the ink. This implies that they are the areas that came into contact with the parts of the metal that were covered by the ground, thus unaffected when the whole metal was dipped into acid. The color of texture and color of these areas are exactly the same as the texture and color on the paper on which the art was

Thursday, February 6, 2020

Planning for Data Collection Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Planning for Data Collection - Term Paper Example According to Keough and Tanabe (2011), a ressearch question is considered a significant footstep in conducting methodical investigationss. It is important to keep in mind the fact that any questions used to gather information in refrence to the scenario ought to be quantifiable, include all the variables of the study, and also be comprehensible enough. The main focus of this study in reference to the scenario is patient satisfaction. The initial questions should therefore cover quantifiable factors such as age, race, gender, and place of residence. Sebsequently, questions to determine the patients experience can be asked. The following are examples of questions that can be asked to gauge the level of patient satisfaction: In such a scenaio, face to face interviews would be the most relevant method to collect data regarding patient satsfaction. It is evident from past studies that face to face interviews lets or permits the researcher to have a personal association with the patient hence s/he is more likely to get first class and higgh quality information. This can be made easier by constructing a questionnaire to ease the whole process (Keough and Tanabe, 2011). As postulated by Keough and Tanabe (2011), to determine sample size, conducting a power analysis is vital. In reference to the scenario, the health instituion serves 10,000 patients annually. To have a distributed sample size, it would be importnt to for instance divide the annual turnover of patients by twelve in order to determine the proportion of patients visiting the instituion per month. Through the employment of an easy and unsystematic sampling tool, the equivalent fractions of patients to use as the sample monthly and subsequently annually can be determined. The participants will be selected through random sampling. For example, by the use of a sample size calculator, for an error

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Metaphysics Essay Example for Free

Metaphysics Essay Plato vs. Freud on Metaphysics Plato and Freud have made great strides in their respective fields of study. Both men have made a lasting impact on the way we now as humans view the world that we live in. Plato and Freud have similarities in views that they share but they also have some differences metaphysically. Plato believes that what is ultimately real are ideas, he believes that images are imperfect representations of the perfect concepts. While Freud believes what is physically real is by the evolution of man. Freud ultimately puts his faith in what he can see and analyze in front of him instead of what he cannot. Freud developed a â€Å"talking cure† which he would let the hysterical patient talk freely about the earliest occurrences which would then entirely eliminate the patient’s symptoms.†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦developed the idea that many neuroses (phobias, hysterical paralysis and pains, some forms of paranoia, and so forth) had their origins in deeply traumatic experiences, which had occurred in the patient’s past but which were now forgotten–hidden from consciousness. The treatment was to enable the patient to recall the experience to consciousness, to confront it in a deep way both intellectually and emotionally, and in thus discharging it, to remove the underlying psychological causes of the neurotic symptoms.† Plato answers the question of metaphysics by saying of ideas and ideal forms and Freud answers the metaphysical question through his belief in hu man nature. For Plato what is ultimately real are ideas and Ideal forms. Plato believes that the object was constantly changing so the ideal form is what was ultimately real. Everything in existence has a form of perfection for itself. All things in the physical world work in their existence to approach their perfection. An object, living or dead, always works in some way or another to meet its nature. For example, if you have a brand new table in your house the brand new table itself is not perfect. It is not perfect because the table itself is in a constant state of change. There is however a perfect ideal form of the table that does not change. â€Å"It is most of all from Plato that we get the theory of Forms, according to which the world we know through the senses is only an imitation of the pure, eternal, and unchanging world of the Forms.† While on the other hand Freud believes ultimately what is real is physical matter the whole universe is in evolution, which means he believes in no God or Gods. He concludes that all religious beliefs are illusions that have little proof. Freud also believed that the evolution that man had endured from the beginning to where he stood presently is what is ultimately real. â€Å"The psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, whose practice began in 1885, believed that each person’s subconscious mind was fraught with desires stemming from earlier phases of evolution. These desires, suppressed by modern society, accounted for much of neurotic behavior. Likewise, an individual’s personality was at least partially determined by heredity.† Freud believes that evolution plays a very pressing role in the lives of humans and that is what is real in the world. Further, what is ultimately real about humans is that man is the highest and most complex of all living creatures whose personali ty is composed of three interacting parts—the Id, the Ego and the Super-ego. The Id (or it) part of the psyche is the primitive instinctive component of personality. It consists of all of the inherited biological components of personality including the sex life. The Id is impulsive and unconscious and responds immediately to the instincts of human beings. The personality of a newborn child is all id and later it starts to develop ego and superego. The ego develops in order to mediate between the unrealistic id and the external real world. It is the decision-making component of personality. The ego only satisfies the id on the realistic terms sometimes compromises to avoid negative consequences of society. The superego incorporates the values and morals of society, which are learned from ones parents and others. It develops around the age of 3 – 5 during the phallic stage of psychosexual development. Through all of these different stages in personally there are some check and balance stages that go along with stages. For example if the id wants somethin g that is wrong and the ego lets the person have such thing, guilt can come into play. â€Å"The superego consists of two systems: The conscience and the ideal self. The conscience can punish the ego through causing feelings of guilt. For example, if the ego gives in to id demands, the superego may make the person feel bad though guilt.† Freud and Plato have made great strides in influencing the world after their work in their respective fields was completed. Freud has influenced many great psychologists after him and Plato has done the same in his respective field of philosophy. Freud influenced the minds such as: Anna Freud, Melanie Klein, Karen Horney, Alfred Alder, Erik Erikson, and Carl Jung. Freud’s influences in his field were great toward the constant search for a deeper analysis of how the mind works. â€Å"His work supported the belief that not all mental illnesses have physiological causes and he also offered evidence that cultural differences have an impact on psychology and behavior. His work and writings contributed to our understanding of personality, clinical psychology, human development and abnormal psychology.† Plato as well left a lasting impression on philosophers after him. He gave great insight to know the world around him works and functions. Plato’s ideas were used to jus tify some religions and certain academic subjects. Plato gave a lot to the teachers and scholars after him. â€Å"In his lifetime he was the most celebrated teacher of his day. After his death his ideas were taken up by countless other thinkers. Philo of Alexandria used Platos ideas to give a philosophical framework to Judaism. Early Christian writers eagerly embraced Platos thought as the best available instrument for explaining and defending the teachings of the Bible and church tradition. Of the Christian Platonists, St. Augustine of Hippo was the best known and most influential. Platos influence spread into Islam as well, through the writings of the philosophers Avicenna and Averroes.† Freud and Plato are not just polar opposites they have things in common as well. They both thought that trouble in the human soul/mind arises when the three parts dont work in harmony with each other. Plato thought that the key to such harmonious relationship was to yield control to the rat ional soul; after all, he was the founder of the rationalist program in philosophy. Freud, on the other hand, concentrated on dealing with the id by means of psychoanalytical techniques. The difference of these men is clearly seen but they also have ideas that intertwine them. Plato thought the human soul, which we now call the mind, was made up of three parts: appetitive, rational, and the spiritual soul. Freud in turn in his career built a system around Plato’s comparable ideas. The system was: id similar to the appetitive soul, ego similar to the rational soul, and superego similar to the spiritual soul. Both men have given the world a foundation to build upon and expand their theories. References Brickhouse, Thomas, and Nicolas D. Smith. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Plato []. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2014. Thornton, Stephen P. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Freud, Sigmund []. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2014. KR, Holmes. Result Filters. National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2014. Lorenz, Hendrik. Ancient Theories of Soul. Stanford University. Stanford University, 23 Oct. 2003. Web. 27 Feb. 2014.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Literacy in Song of Solomon, Life of Frederick Douglass, Push and Slave Narratives :: comparison compare contrast essays

Exploration of Language and Literacy in Song of Solomon, Life of Frederick Douglass, Push and Slave Narratives      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   African-Americans have been contributing to American literature for hundreds of years. From Gustavus Vassa, or Olaudah Equiano, in 1789 to Sapphire in 1996, writers have been telling their stories. The influence of minority writers and speakers on literature, literacy, and language is certainly notable.    First of all, black American literature helps "others" hear the minority voice and vicariously share the minority experience. The typical white reader cannot understand what the black race undergoes on a daily and generational basis; however, literature can bring the white reader into the minority's world by tapping into the reader's imagination and sympathies.    The main purpose of the slave narratives is to let readers share the slaves' experiences, and as a result elicit sympathies so that the reader will consider, and hopefully act upon, abolitionist ideals. In the preface to Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, William Lloyd Garrison writes about Douglass and the white northerners "whose sympathy and affection he has strongly secured by the many sufferings he has endured, ...whose minds he has enlightened on the subject of slavery, and who have been melted to tears by his pathos, or roused to virtuous indignation by his stirring eloquence against the enslavers of men" (ix). Douglass was certainly aware of his mission to agitate the public mind and win the hearts of others (xii). He achieved this purpose through his voice unwaveringly telling the pitiful story of his slave experiences. How could his audience turn a deaf ear to such eloquence and power?    Like Douglass, Sapphire shares the minority experience with the privileged population. She achieves this feat through the character Precious and her unique voice. The minority voice is distinct and unavoidable, for it is the voice that narrates the story. For example, Precious contrasts her life experiences with the dominant class's experiences: "What is a normal life? A life where you not 'shamed of your mother. Where your friends come over after school and watch TV and do homework. Where your mother is normal looking and don't hit you over the head wif iron skillet. I would wish for in my fantasy a second chance. Since my first chance go to Mama and Daddy" (Sapphire 114-115). These powerful statements from the voice of an eighteen year old African-American girl bring the white reader into the reality of the life of the minority.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Internshp on Performance Evaluation of Exim Bank Ltd

Internship REPORT ON EXPORT IMPORT BANK LIMITED TOPIC: Performance Evaluation of EXIM Bank Ltd. Special Focus on Foreign Exchange Division Department of Business Administration Submitted by www. AssignmentPoint. com Date of Submission: 17th May2012 LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 17th May2012 To Lecturer Department of Business Administration Subject: Submission of the BBA Internship Report. Dear Madam, It is a great Pleasure for me that I have the opportunity to submit the Internship Report on performance evaluation of Export Import Bank of Bangladesh Limited special focus on foreign exchange division.The internship program gave me an opportunity to have an exposure to the working environment and on the job experience. I have acquired a good understanding on distribution channel of this multinational. I have tried my level best to put meticulous effort for the preparation of this report. Any shortcomings or fault may arise as my unintentional mistakes' I will wholeheartedly welcome any clarifi cation and suggestion about any view and conception disseminated through this report. Sincerely yours www. AssignmentPoint. com †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. SUPERVISOR’S CERTIFICATIONThis is to certify that student of department of BBA and major in Finance, has completed the Internship Report titled â€Å"Performance Evaluation of EXIM Bank Ltd. Special Focus on Foreign Exchange Division† successfully under my supervision. I wish her every success in life. Supervisor †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Lecturer Department of Business Administration Acknowledgement Allah is Almighty to mock internship report of my port of study of BBA Program. The accomplishment and completion of this report would not have been viable without the contribution of some people who took the time and effort to guide me in my report work.I deeply appreciate and value their suggestions and recommendations through the entire course of my report work. I would like to extend my heartiest thanks and my sincerest gratitude to all those who directly/ indirectly contribute to the compilation of report. I am especially grateful to my teacher, my internship supervisor. I could not prepare my Internship Report without her proper guidance and inspiration. Last but not least, I would like to give my thanks to all the members of EXIM Bank Ltd. , Panthapath Branch because working with them was such a wonderful experience in my life that I will never forget.TABLE OF CONTENTS Particular Page No |Executive Summary |VIII | | | | |CHAPTER-1 Introduction |1 | |1. 1 |Origin of the Report: |2 | |1. 2 |Objective of the Report: |2 | |1. |General objective of the Report: |2 | |1. 4 |Specific objective of the Report: |3 | |1. 5 |Scope of the Report: |3 | |1. 6 |Limitations of the Report: |4 | |1. 7 |Methodology of the Study: |4 | |1. |Sources of Information: |5 | | | | | |CHAPTER-2 Economic Conditions In Bangladesh |6 | | | | |CHAPTER - 3 Industry Analysis | | | | |CHAPTER-4 Company Analysis |12 | |4. 1 |Historical Background Of The Exim Bank |13 | |4. 2 |Vision |13 | |4. 3 |Mission |13 | |4. 4 |Objective |14 | |4. |Strategy |15 | | | | | |CHAPTER-5 The General Banking Division |16 | | | | |CHAPTER-6 Loans And Advances Department |24 | | | |25 | | | |29 | | | | | |CHAPTER-7 Foreign Exchange Department |39 | | | | |CHAPTER-8 Competitive position of Export Import Bank of Bangladesh limited with Premier Bank limited |45 | | | | |CHAPTER-9 SWOT & Financial Analysis |51 | | Swot Analysis | | |Ratio Analysis | | |CHAPTER-10 Recommendation & Conclusion |70 | |10. 1 |Findings |71 | |10. 2 |Recommendation |72 | |10. 3 |Conclusion |73 | | | | | Appendix |74 | |Bibliography |78 | Executive Summary Bank is a service oriented business organization. The prime goal of this organization is earning profit as another business organization. Customer service is core product of the bank. According to Bank Company Act 199 1 clause 5(3) Banker means that person or institute of accepting for the purpose of lending or investment of Deposit of money from public, repayable on demand.To know your customer is the main slogan in new modern Banking System providing customer services. EXIM Bank Limited has earned a good reputation around Bangladesh. Despite competition among banks operating in Bangladesh both local and international, EXIM Bank has made remarkable progress, practically in every sphere of its activities. Export Import Bank of Bangladesh Limited is a third generation private commercial bank in the country with commendable operating performance. This study is mainly based on performance evaluation of EXIM Bank Ltd. Special focus on foreign exchange division. In order to make foreign the report more meaningful and presentable, use both the primary and secondary sources of collection information. EXIM Bank Ltd. as already established a favorable reputation in the banking industry of the country. At is one of the leading private sector commercial banks in Bangladesh. The bank has already shown a tremendous growth in the profits and deposits sectors. To get competitive advantage and to deliver quality service management can establish training institute and credit car should be introduced. The over all performance of the bank is very good according to its competitive position. Within a near future EXIM bank will be a market leader among the banks. 1. Introduction: 1. 1 Origin of the Report: In today's world only academic education does make a student perfect to become competitive with the corporate & Global business world.By doing an internship program, a student can get the opportunity to learn facing about real business world. Internship is highly needed to gain idea knowledge and experience. I am a BBA graduate from Private University in Bangladesh. It has designed its curriculum of the BBA Program such a way that the international standard graduates will be produced. After co mpleting my 139 Credit hours I Need to go for further professional experience through Internship program in a Business organization EXIM Bank Ltd. is a place where I have learned the business dealings. This organization has created a positive image to the customer's mind by providing better service specifically I am telling about the Panthapath Branch.This branch has introduced an exclusive modern banking system that has got high market sharing and rating in the prominent business & banking avenue in Panthapath Bank way. As an BBA Internee Office I have tried to maintain the pace with the competitive business environment on official Activities Culture Philosophy Norms & Styles. It should be reflect the best at any field of my Professional life; The Vice President & Manger is my overall Guide Philosopher & Superior. By receiving his all sorts of cordial support I have been availed the opportunity to work with this branch for three months from 10th January 2010 to 9th March 2010. I ac quired idea about real business and corporate world. 1. 2 Objective of the Report: Prime objects to a large-scale study on Banking System. 1. 3 General objective of the Report:The report specification based on the overall banking performance evaluation and special focus on foreign exchange division of EXIM Bank Ltd. 1. 4 Specific objective of the Report: ? To apply theoretical knowledge in the practical field. ? To make a bridge between the theories and practical procedures of banking day-to-day operations. ? To know the different modes of scheme, in EXIM Bank. ? Trend analyses of the different scheme. ? To know the financial activity of bank. ? An overview on the major financial activity and practices of EXIM Bank ? To identify the strategies for EXIM Bank Limited, implementing in constant prosperity of the company ? Analyzing the performance trends of EXIM Bank. To give some idea about its management and organization structure ? To present and overview of EXIM Bank Ltd. ? Compare the different mode of scheme of Exim Bank with other similar bank. 1. 5 Scope of the Report: First the report presents about the current economic condition of Bangladesh and the present condition of the banking sector of our country and next it gives some ideas about EXIM Bank Ltd. Then it analyzes the performance of the bank based on financial analysis and SWOT analysis. After that, it emphasizes or foreign exchange division. By reading this report one can easily have some ideas about the performance and foreign exchange division of EXIM Bank Ltd. 1. 6 Limitations of the Report:Although there were sincere co-operation from employees of EX1M Bank Limited, Panthapath Branch, they could not manage enough time to provide the necessary information for the completion of the report. During the preparation of the report the following problems occurred that may be termed as the limitation or shortcomings of the study. Some of the limitations faced in preparing this report are: ? Confidentia lity the Bank's policy restricts disclosing some data ? Data about the performance of the bank of the year 2008 have not yet been disclosed by the bank. ? The study of such a short course of time is not free from limitation. ? The data relevant for the analysis report writing sometimes could not be collected due to excessive year-ending workload at the branch. It is too much difficult to comment and suggest based on only the annual report and information collected from written documents. ? As some assumptions were made with the help of limited information, there may be some personal mistake in the report ? It was very difficult to collect the information from various incumbents for the job restriction. 1. 7 Methodology of the Study: Although there were so many limitations, it was tried to use both the primary and secondary sources of collecting information to make the report presentable with as less abstraction as possible. 1. 8 Sources of Information: Two sources (i) Primary & (ii) Secondary A.Primary data: Primary data is always known as survey data. This type of data is collected from the respondent. For this personal Interview with the offices and customers have been conducted. B. Secondary Data: Data that were published before for some other reason can be collected using internal and external sources. i) Internal secondary data: To furnish the report properly some papers has been collected from the officials of EXIM Bank Ltd. Information from annual reports journals, newspapers and other published documents have been used besides other published information about the organization, depth interview of the branch manager and second branch manager have also taken. i) External Secondary data: For better interpretation some data has been collected from Bangladesh Bank. Internet Browsing is also one source of external Secondary data. 2. ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN BANGLADESH Bangladesh has an agrarian economy with 32% of GDP coming from the Agriculture Sector. Major agricultural products are rice, jute, wheat, potato, pulses, tobacco, tea and sugarcane. . The country is the largest exporter of jute and jute goods in the world. Readymade garments are among the most exportable items. Tea, frozen shrimp, fish, leather goods and handicrafts are also major exportable commodities. The country has under gone a major shift in its economic philosophy and management in recent years.At Bangladesh's birth, the country embraced socialism as the economic ideology with a dominant role for the public sector. But, since the mid-seventies, it undertook a major restructuring towards establishing a market economy with emphasis on private sector-led economic growth. During the nineties, the country has completed a major stabilization program which has reduced inflation as well as fiscal and current account deficits and established a healthy foreign exchange reserve position with low and sustainable debt-service liabilities. With modest economic growth, the basic in dicators related to health, education and poverty have all shown sustained improvement.According to a World Bank estimate, Bangladesh has the 36th largest economy in the world in terms of GNP based on the purchasing power parity method of valuation, and the 55th largest in terms of nominal GNP in U. S. Dollars. Bangladesh economy grew on an average at above 6. 0 percent in the last four years up to FY07 . According to the provisional estimates of the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS),real GDP recorded a strong growth of 6. 5 percent in FY07,which is marginally lower than 6. 6percent recorded in FY06 . This growth was commendable as it was achieved in challenging environment marked by high and volatile oil price ,phasing out of the MFA quota, labour unrest in the garment industry and confrontational political situation of the country in the first half of FY07. With reasonable support from agriculture sector, the 6. percent real GDP growth was underpinned mainly by industry sector and services sector. The expansion was broad based, registering positive growth by all sectors and sub-sectors of the economy. Spurred by a robust 9. 5 percent growth in industry sector and 6. 7 percent growth in services sector, GDP growth during the year was also aided by 3. 2 percent growth in the agriculture sector. The domestic savings-investment gap was met with net factor income from abroad which increased by 37. 0 percent in FY07 from 4. 4 percent in FY06 reflecting higher savings growth. The domestic savings investment gap was met with net factor income from abroad which increased by 37. 0 percent in FY07.The rising trend of inflation of FY06 as measured by CPI continued in FY07 mainly due to higher prices of oil and some other imported goods in the international market, distortion in the supply side factors and demand pressure generated from excess money supply . Slower import of consumer necessities pulling their domestic prices heightened the price pressures. Annual ave rage CPI (base FY96) inflation as of end June 2007was 7. 20 percent, compared to 7. 16 percent as of end June 2006. There was notable increase of food prices component of CPI inflation from 7. 8 percent as of end June 2006 to 8. 1 percent as of end June 2007. Maintaining a favorable investment environment and a sound macroeconomic management are important to strengthen private sector investment in the economy.In view of medium term outlook of sustainable economic growth and low inflation for world and south Asian economies and assuming continuation of prudent policies and progress in advancing structural reforms, the near and medium term economic prospects of Bangladesh appear favorable. 3. INDUSTRY ANALYSIS Bank plays an important role in this modern world. The development of industries and business sectors of a country mainly depends on good banking system. The industries and businessman are taking short and long term loan from banks. In the modern world international businesses a re fully depended on banks. Without sound banking system no country can develop in international trade. Bank constitutes an important segment of the financial infrastructure of any country. The economic history of many countries reveals that economic development and growth of financial infrastructure go hand in hand.Financial system of a country is the heart of a country’s economic system as it connects suppliers of the funds and demanders of fund, which is needed to produce economic goods. It also provides a large arena of employment opportunity. As Bangladesh is containing a bank base economy, its economic development is largely depended on the development of banking sectors. Bangladesh appeared as a new nation on the world map in the year 1971. After independence financial institutions, especially banks played a vital role in re-constructing the war-torn economy of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Bank is the central bank of the country and is in charge of monetary policies of the G overnment and controls all commercial banks. Development and growth of our banking system may be divided into three parts. The performance of our banking system during 1972 to 1982 was commendable in respect of expending network and providing easy credit to the socially desirable sectors but equally frustrating with regard to maintaining validity and customer services. The second phase from 1983 to 1989 was characterized by denationalization and privatization of banking system without broad-basing the prudential and information regulatory framework; however, these measures of denationalization and privatization could not bring the viability and operational efficiency of banking system.Under the above circumstances and with the recommendation of World Bank, a Financial Sector Reform Project (FSRP) was undertaken in 1989 by the government, which can be identified with third phase of the development of our banking system. The government of Bangladesh has also enacted some important act s namely financial institutions act 1993, Securities and Exchange Commission act 1993, the companies’ act 1994 and recently Bankruptcy act 1997. The present day banking structure has evolved over several decodes. The far-reaching program of economic reform is being carried out at present towards efficient utilization of scare resources and the development of private entrepreneurship. Banks are financial service firms, producing and selling professional management of the public's fund as well as performing many other roles in the economy.Banks are those financial institutions that offer the widest rang of financial functions of any business firm in the economy. Competition is strengthened by the entry of new and innovative provides of financial services, through the development of Money market and Capital market. Money market is designed for the making of short-term loans where individuals and institutions with temporary surplus of funds meet borrowers who have temporary cash shortages. Capital market is deigned to finance long-term loans where individuals and institutions with temporary surplus of finds meet borrowers who have temporary cash shortages. Capital market is designed to finance long-term investments.Private sector commercial banks are private companies operate under the legislative framework, which covers both Company Act, and Banking Company Act, under the ongoing financial liberalization, EXIM Bank emerges as a new Bank in private sector to operate at the Banking arena of Bangladesh It is committed to provide high quality financial services/ products to contribute to the growth of GDP of the country through stimulating trade and commerce, accelerating the pace of industrialization, boosting up export, creating employment opportunity for the educated youth , poverty alleviation, raising standard of living of limited income group and overall sustainable socio-economic development of the country. 4. COMPANY ANALYSIS 4. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE EXIM BANK EXIM Bank- Export Import Bank of Bangladesh Ltd. was named at first as BEXIM Bank BEXIM stands for Bengal Export Import of Bangladesh. This new commercial Bank was opened in August 03, 1999 with some new innovative visions in customer services.The Bank received the certificate of incorporate no. C-37864 (2164)/99 under the commencement of the business on the same day by the section 150(2) under companies Act. A part from the head office in Dilkusha C/A, it stared its first local branch in Motijheel C/A simultaneously in order to provide all kinds of Banking support to the clients. On December 02, 1999 the second branches both in Dhaka City and other cities. Now it has twenty-five branches in the country. 4. 2 VISION The gist of EXIM bank vision is ‘Together Towards Tomorrow'. Export Import Bank of Bangladesh Limbed believes in togetherness with its customers, in its march or the road to growth and progress with services.To achieve the desired goal, there will be pursuit of excellence at all stages with a climate of continuous improvement, because, in EXIM Bank, they believe, the line of excellence is never ending. Bank's strategic plans and networking will strengthen its competitive edge over others in rapidly changing competitive environments. Their personalized qualities services to the customers with the trend of constant improvement will be cornerstone achieve their operational success. 4. 3 MISSION The bank has checked out the following corporate objectives in order to ensure smooth achievement of its goals- ? To be the most caring and customer friendly and service oriented bank. ? To create a technology base most efficient banking environment for its customers ? To ensure ethics and transparency in ail levels To ensure sustainable growth and establish full value of the honorable shareholders and ? Above all, to add effective contribution to the national economy Eventually the bank also emphasize on: ? Provide high quality financia l services in export and import trade ? Providing efficient customer service ? Maintaining corporate and business ethics ? Being trusted repository of customers’ money and their financial adviser ? Making its products superior and rewarding to the customers ? Display team spirit and professionalism ? Sound Capital Base ? Enhancement of shareholders wealth ? Fulfilling its social commitments by expanding its charitable and humanitarian activities 4. Objective Bangladesh is now integral part of global market. As such there is an urgent requirement for Bangladesh to place the traditional banking pretties in harness with the global trades of a free market economy by following international banking customs, practices and standards. Today clients of a bank in Bangladesh are exposed as well as international markets. They have to stay update with their practice and standards to meet the demands of achieving harmony in the high standards of a free economy. EXIM Bank fully appreciates the importance and implication of the rapidly emerging competition in the banking and finance sector of Bangladesh.It intends financing its customer suited to his or her place in the market. In this regards EXIM Bank emphasizes in its employment the software aspects of human resource capability. It also emphasizes competence among its banking professional to cater to vary customer requirements to the modern time. The objectives of EXIM BANK is not only to earn profit but also to keep the social commitment and to ensure its co-operation to the person of alt level, to the businessman, industrialist specially who are engaged in establishing large-scale industry by consortium and the agro-based export oriented medium and small scale industries by self inspiration.EXIM BANK is always ready to maintain highest quality of services by upgrading banking technology prudence in management and by applying high standard of business ethic through its established commitment and heritage. EXIM BANK is committed to ensure its contribution to national economy by increasing its profitability through professional and disciplined growth strategy for its customer and by creating corporate culture in international banking area. 4. 5 Strategy In order to reach the goal it is important to build strategy and follow the policies. If it can select the appropriate strategy and choose the right policy, it will be very easy to touch its desired position.The distinguishing attribute of policy is to set the over all boundaries for activities. According to this system when the bank was started it has to decide what kind of business it is going to be in. The Bank also has to decide on its growth and communicate through am system of major objective of the business is to reach the goal, to reach the desired position from the current status. There might be a number of ways to reach there and its has to be decided which path would be easier to reach the objective. So the authority has no decided wh ich path they select to proceed. The following figure can be explained clearly. Slogan of the EXIM Bank: â€Å"Local Bank Global Network†The world EXIM implies the meaning of its operation. Through it is a new type of Bank in Bangladesh; it is familiar with so many countries in the world such as Export Import Bank of the United States, Export Import Bank of Japan. Despite it is a local Bank, It has spread of its operation in the whole world through foreign Banking. To achieve the desired goal, it has intention to pursuit f excellence at stages with a climate of continuous improvement. Because it believes, the line of excellence is never ending. It also believes that its strategic plans and business networking will strength its competitive edge over in rapidly changing competitive environment.It motto I to provide quality service to the customers all over the world so, the slogan of the Bank â€Å"Local Bank Global Network† is completely adjustable with its operation. T HE GENERAL BANKING DIVISION Internship has provided the opportunity to coordinate the theoretical knowledge that one has gathered in MBA Class with the practical field. Although three months is not a very long period to learn the whole thing that usually occurs in an organization. The supervisor divided this report into three parts. 1) The general banking department 2) The Investment department 3) The foreign Exchange department. Learning experience from General Banking Division:The main business of this Division is dealing with Deposit. There are two types of Deposit in this Branch and General Banking division as the following section: 1. Deposit section 2. Account Section 3. Remittance section 4. Clearing section 5. Customer Service section 6. Cash section and 7. Information Technology section Task I Handled in this Division is 1. Opening Accounts 2. Opening Monthly saving scheme, 3. Modaraba Term Deposit Account Current 4. Deposit foreign current Deposit Account 5. Modarada short notice Deposit (STD). 6. Fixed Deposit, Steady Money. 7. Demand Draft (D. D) 8. Telegraphic Transfer (T. T) 9. Payment Order (P/O) 10. Travelers Check (T. C) 1. Issuing Check. Pay Order (PO): Pay order is one kind of unconditional promissory note or instrument that is issued by the Bank to the customer. The difference between check and pay order is the mode of encasement. Demand Draft: Demand Drafts are made for the transfer of money from one place to another in the form of cheques through a particular Bank, which can be ensued right way. The Bank issues DD for their outer district branches. Telegraph/ Telephone Transfer: When a certain amount of money is asked by the client to transfer from one branch to another than it is called telegraph/ telephone transfer. For TT, there is a particular from.When the form is filled up properly and deposits the amount by the applicant, the authorized officer issued a cost memo to the application for their confirmation. lssuing cheques Books: Che ckbook issue is a very sensitive because most of the fraud occurs through this checkbook. Customer requiring check books to fill out requisition ship. For saving accounts 10 pages check book issued and CD/SOD/ CC accounts issued 25 and 50 pages checkbook. Cash Section: In clearing section the work is to clear the cheques, DD's and PO's through Bangladesh Bank that are submitted for cash collection. Everyday morning House another in the evening called return house.In the hose all the Banks representative sit together and exchanges their money receive instrument of their particular bank to clear the paper and transfer to money the paper partlcular accounts. Type of Clearing: There is two type of clearing 1) In-Ward 2) Out –Ward In- ward: Those Cheques or instrument of EXIM, which are submitted to other banks for collections are called In – Ward Clearing. Out- Ward: The cheques of other banks that are submitted to the EXIM for collections are called out-ward Clearing. Cas h Section: Cash is the main element of all financial activities. The cash section of any branch plays very significant role. It's very sensitive place of the branch, because it deals with most liquid assets. The EXIM Bank Mirpur Branch has an equipped cash section.This section receives cash from depositors/Client and pays cash against cheques draft, payment order and pay to slip over the counter This section deals with all type as of negotiable instruments and in includes volt. Used as the store of cash instrument, the main functions of the sections are cash receipt and cash disbursement. Accounts Opening Section: This section deals with opening of different types of accounts. It is also deals with issuing of books and different deposit boos to the different accounts opener. A customer can open different types of accounts through this department such as: l. Current Account 2. Saving Account 3. Fixed deposit account (FDR) 4.Short term Deposit (STD) 5. Monthly saving Scheme (Money Gro ver) 6. Monthly income scheme (Steady money) 7. Smart saver Scheme 8. Multi plus saving Account 9. Super saving scheme 10. Education saving scheme EXIM Bank gives special importance various deposit schemes are: l. Monthly saving Scheme (money Grower) 2. Monthly income scheme (Steady Money) 3. Multi plus savings A/C 4 Super saving scheme 5. Double benefit Scheme 6. Smart saver Scheme 7. And Education saving Scheme Types of Accounts with Terms and Conditions Current (CD) Account: Current account is purely a demand deposit account. There is no restriction on withdrawing money from the account.It is basically justified when funds are to be collected and money is to be paid at frequent interval. Some Important Points are as follows- †¢ Minimum opening deposit of TK. 1000/- is required; †¢ There is no withdrawal limit. †¢ No interest is given upon the deposited money; †¢ Minimum Tk. 1000/= balance must always maintain all the time. Savings (SB) Account: The bank provid es savings account services for the ease of its clients. It offers both personal and corporate Savings Account to its clients in every branch. Hence, there is a restriction on withdrawals in a month. Heavy withdrawals are permitted only against prior notice. Some Important Points are as follows- Minimum opening deposit of Tk. 5000/= is required; †¢ Minimum Tk. 1000/= balance must always maintain all the time; †¢ Withdrawal amount should not be more than 1/4th of the total balance at a time and limit twice in a month. †¢ If withdrawal amount exceed 1/4th of the total balance at a time no interest is given upon the deposited money for that month. †¢ The current rate on deposit amount is 6%. †¢ Closing of saving accounts will cost 300tk to a customer. Short Term Deposit (STD) Account: Normally various big companies, organizations, Government Departments keep money in STD account. Frequent withdrawal is discouraged and requires prior notice.The deposit should be kept for at least seven days to get interest. The interest offered for STD is less than that of savings deposit. Interest is calculated based on daily minimum product and paid two times in a year. Interest rate is 4. 50%. Call Deposits (Money at Call): Sometime the banker secures funds from the money markets usually from other bankers against receipt to meet his purely tepmorary shortage of funds. These debts are repayable immediately at call. When the money market is tight such derosits attract higher rate of interst and then to be treated as banker’s borrowings as call loans. Account opening: To dill with the bank individuals need to have an account first.The particulars are essential for identification of the account holders individually so that the banker can discharge his obligations to every one correctly and to the extent due. Documents required for opening account ? Individual / Joint Account: 1. Introduction of the account. 2. Two photographs of the signatories duly attested by the introducer. 3. Identity (copy of passport). 4. Joint Declaration Form (For joint a/c only). 5. Employee’s Certificate (in case of service holder). ? Partnership account: 1. Introduction of the account. 2. Two photographs of the signatories duly attested by the introducer. 3. Partnership letter duly signed by all partners (Sign should be similar as stated in Partnership Deed). 4. Partnership Deed duly certified byNotary public. 5. Registration (If any). 6. Updated Trade license. ? Proprietorship account: 1. Introduction of the account. 2. Two photographs of the signatories duly attested by the introducer. 3. Valid copy of Trade License. 4. Rubber stamp. 5. TIN number certificate. 6. Identity (Copy of passport). 7. Permission letter from DC/ Magistrate (in case of newspaper) 8. ? Limited company: 1. Introduction of the account. 2. Two photographs of the signatories duly attested by the Introducer. 3. Valid copy of Trade License. 4. Board resolution of opening A /C duly certified by the Chairman/Managing Director. 5. Certificate of Incorporation. 6.Certificate of Commencement (In case of Public limited company). 7. Certified (joint stock) true copy of the Memorandum and Article of Association of the Company duly attested by Chairman or Managing Director. 8. List of directors along with designation & specimen signature. 9. Latest certified copy of Form – xii (to be certified by register of joint stock companies) (In case of Directorship change). 10. Rubber Stamp (Seal with designation of each person) 11. Certificate of registration (In case of Insurance Company – Obtained from department of Insurance from the Peoples Republic of BD). ? Club / societies account: 1. Introduction of the account. 2.Two photographs of the Signatories duly attested by the introducer. 3. Board Resolution for Opening A/C duly certified by President/ Secretary. 4. List of Existing Managing Committee. 5. Registration (if any). 6. Rubber Stamp. 7. Permiss ion letter from Bureau of N. G. O. (In case of N. G. O. A/C). Savings Scheme; †¢ Monthly Income Scheme †¢ Multiplus Savings †¢ Smart saver †¢ Super Saving Scheme †¢ Monthly Savings Scheme (Money Grower) †¢ Hajj Scheme Finance/Loans: †¢ Corporate Finance †¢ Industrial Finance †¢ Lease Finance †¢ Hire Purchase Finance †¢ Commercial Loans †¢ Project Finance †¢ Syndicate Loans †¢ Retail Loans †¢ Mortgage Loans †¢ Loan against Share and Securities †¢ Account Opening Procedures: Step 1 | | | |The account should be properly introduced by Any one of the following: | | |An existing Current Account holder of the Bank. | | |Officials of the Bank not below the rank of an Assistant officer. | | |A respectable person of the locality well known to the Manager/Sub-Manager of the Branch concerned. | |Step 2 | | | |Receiving filled up application in bank’s prescribed form mentioning what type of account is de sired to be | | |opened. |Step 3 | | | |The form is filled up by the applicant himself / herself | | |Two copies of passport size photographs from individual are taken, in case of firms photographs of all | | |partners are taken | | |Applicants must submit required documents | | |Application must sign specimen signature sheet and give mandate | | |Introducer’s signature and accounts number – verified by legal officer | |Step 4 | | | |Authorized Officer accepts the application | |Step 5 | | | |Minimum balance is deposited – only cash is accepted | |Step 6 | | | |Account is opened and a Cheque book and pay-in-slip book is given | Account Sections: Daily function: The routine daily tasks of the accounts department are as follows: 1. Recording the daily transactions in the cash book 2. Recording the daily transactions in general and subsidiary ledgers 3. Preparing the daily position of the branch comprising of deposit and cash 4.Preparing the daily statement o f affairs showing all the assists and liability of the branch as per ledger and subsidiary leader separately. 5. Making payment of all expenses of the Branch 6. Recording inters branch fund transfer and providing accounting treatment in this regard. 7. Checking whether all the vouchers are correctly passed to ensure the Conformity with the Activity Report; if otherwise making it correct by calling the respective official to rectify the voucher. 8. Recording of the vouchers in the Voucher Register 9. Packing of the correct vouchers according to the debit voucher and the credit voucher. Periodical Tasks: The routine periodical tasks performed by the department are as follows. 1. Preparing the monthly salary statements for the employees 2.Publishing the basic data of the branch 3. Preparing the weekly position for the branch this is sent to the Head Office to maintain Cast Reserve requirement 4. Preparing the monthly position for the branch, this is sent to the Head office to maintain statuary liquidity requirement. 5. Preparing the weekly position for the branch comprising of the break up of sector wise deposit, credit etc. 6. Preparing the weekly position for the branch comprising of the denomination wise statement of cash in tills. 7. Preparing the budget for the branch by fixing the target regarding profit and deposit so as to take necessary steps to general and mobilize deposit 8.Preparing an Extract' which is a summary of all the transactions of the Head Office account with the branch to reconcile all the transaction held among the accounts of all the branches. General Account: General account is important one, which has to be maintained by each branch. Indeed general account is are record of Oregonian and responding transactions among inter- branches of the same bank. All types of assets and liabilities of one branch with another one are settled through this account. Branch can know how much the bank is liable with Head Office. The debit and credit balance shows assets and liabilities of the respective branch. Statement or Affairs:Accounts section prepares the statement of affairs for finding the profit/ loss as well as amount of assets and liabilities of concerned branch per day Theoretically, it is called financial statement and has tow parts: 1. Income and Expenditure Account 2. Statement of Assets and Liabilities Amortization and Depreciation: Amortization is the allocation of the cost of an intangible asset to expense for example, prepaid expenditure, prepaid insurance and good will etc Amortization schedule is determined by the decision of management. Establishment: This section deals with employee's salary, much type of internal expenses such as purchase of pen, paper equipment, machinery and payment of labor Cost and employee conveyance. In cause of leave of absence employee collects prescribed from this section. LOANS AND ADVANCES DEPARTMENT Introduction:Banking is essentially a business dealing organization with money and c redit like all other business activates. Banks are profit-oriented organization. A bank invites its find many ways to earn more and more profit and most of its income is derived from loans and advances. Bank makes loans and advances to traders, Businesspersons, industrialists and many other persons against security of some cautions policy and sound lending principle in the matter of lending. EXIM Bank is a lending bank in loans and advances and it grant loans in various sectors especially in industry, trade and commerce. Types of loans and advances: There may be different types of loans and advance given from the commercial banks such as EXIM Bank Ltd. Of our country.Loans and advances may be in the following types: 1. Cash credit 2. Overdraft 3. House Building loan (General and Staff) 4. Transportation (Car) loan (only for senior staff) 5. Consumer credit Scheme 6. Loan against Imported Merchandise (LIM) 7. Loan Bills purchases Documentary (LBPD) 8. Loan against Other Securities (L AOS) 9. Term Loan Brief Idea about the different types of loans and advance: Cash Credit (CC): Cash credit is an arrangement by which the customer is allowed to borrow May up to a creation limit. This permanent arrangement and the customers need not to draw the sanctioned amount of money at a time. The borrower can draw the money when required.The borrower can put back any surplus, amount, which he/she may he affect frequently. Intersect is charged only to the amount with drawn and not he whore amount sanctioned cash credit arrangement is usually divide into two ways such as: 1. Cash credit pledge 2. Cash credit hypothecation Cash Credit Pledge: In case of cash credit pledge possession of the goods dealings to bank and ownership of the of the goods belongs to borrower and bank the possessions of the goods as primary security. The goods storied in go down under lock and key by direct supervision of the bank. If the borrower wants to sell any potion of the pledged goods he/she permiss ion of bank with returning the value of the loan amount.It is therefore regarded as the most secured type of advance. Cash Credit hypothecation: In case of cash Credit hypothecation possession of the goods not transferred to the bank and therefore such and advance is no better than a clean loan, such an advance can thus only be granted to a person in whose integrity the barked has full confidence cash credit in the form of Hypothecation is normally accompanied with mortgagee of immovable properties. The pray/ borrower possesses the lock and key of the down. The Formalities of opening cash Credit: There intending cash credit holder should submit the following documents and being fill up properly: 1. Stock repot, rend receipt 2. Trade license 3.Up to date income tax clearings certificate 4. Charge documents 5. Letter of Continuity 6. Letter of arrangement 7. DP (Demand Promissory) note 8. Letter of guarantee 9. Letter lien 10. Limit sanction advice 11. Non-Encumbrance Certificate Obse rving the documents the bank authority prepares a cc proposal from that contains the following information: 1. Nature of business 2. Banking with EXIM 3. Transition with CD account by the client 4. Allied deposit with SB/STD account. 5. Number of adjustment (s) how many times the CC holder made his/her Account nil that means debit balance equal to credit balance. 6. Recycling it is ration of total credit summation to the limit.If the ratio is Higher it is better from banker's points of view. 7. Turn over in the account 8. By the encasement authority the bank holds the power to encase the FDR the encasement authority at any time in case borrower's failure to repay the loan amount with interest in due time. Based in the above-mentioned information the dealing officer of the loans and advances department prepares recommendation about the prospect of granting the CC loan to the client. Overdraft: Overdraft is an arrangement between the banker and the customer by which the letter is allo wed to withdraw over his/her credit balance in the current account up to an agreed limit.The borrower is permitted for draw and repays any number of times, provided he total amount overdrawn dose not exceeds the agreed limit. Here the interest is charged only for the amount withdrawn over the limit. Not for the whole amount. Overdraft is divided into tow categories:  ¦ Secured overdraft (SOD)  ¦ Temporary overdraft (TOD) Secured overdraft: It is allowed against the full security (i. e. FDR, ICB unit Certificates). Temporary Overdraft: It is allowed to the customer for a very short period of time. But EXIM bank deals only secured overdraft. Car Loans: This is a special type of loan, which is only provided for the staff of EXIM Bank.Usually AVP and above level officers get this kind facility. This loan is reimbursed on instrument basis and repayable after each month. House Building loan (General and Staff): General house building loan is providing into two sectors:  ¦ Generally  ¦ Staff Naturally house building loan is paid for the construction of commercial building, and owners etc, procedures for sanctioning house- building loan as follows:-  ¦ Application for sectioning loan  ¦ Application properly filled up for credit facilities supplied by the bank.  ¦ Personal net worth statement each director  ¦ Enquiry form Required papers for sanctioning HB loan:  ¦ Copy of general power of attorney  ¦ Copy of material certificate Copy of engineer's estimate  ¦ Copy of projected cash flow Loan (General): In case of loan the banks sanction some of money for a certain period of time. The enter amount is one time disbursement and paid in cash or credit loan A/C. The interest is charged on full sanctioned amount @16%. The bank generally sanctions loan to establish industry. These types of loan are granted for capital expenditure such as purchase of land, constriction of factory building, purchase of new machinery and modernization of plant. The borrowe r cannot withdraw this type of loan once repaid in full or in part again. Formalities for extending project loan: Loan application form:After receiving the loan application from the borrower the branch scrutinizes the application whether it is viable or not. Loan application from contains the following particulars amongst other detail below:  ¦ Particular description of the Project.  ¦ Nature of the Project  ¦ Detail information about the borrower  ¦ Statements of assets and liabilities of the borrower with declaration  ¦ Detail information about proposed products, machinates and manpower etc  ¦ Project cost and source of fund.  ¦ Market for the proposed project. Feasibility report: This report is provided by the borrower, which includes the following aspects of the project:  ¦ Marketing aspect  ¦ Technical aspect financial aspect  ¦ Managing aspect  ¦ Socio-economic aspect 1) Classification Procedure 1.Categories of Loans- At first all loans and advances will be grouped into four categories for the purpose of classification, such as- (a) Continuous Loans (b) Demand Loans (c) Fixed Term Loans and (d) Short Term and Agriculture & Micro Credit. (a) Continuous Loans : The loan A/C in which transaction may be made within a certain limit and have an expiry date for full adjustment will be treated as continuous loan. Exp CC, OD etc. (b) Demand Loans: The loan that becomes repayable by the party on demand by his bank will be treated as demand loans. If any contingent or any other liabilities are turned into forced loan will also be treated as demand loan. Exp. LIM, PAD, FBP, IBP etc. (c) Fixed Term Loans: The loan which is repayable with in the specific time period under a pacific repayment schedule will be treated as Fixed Term Loans. d) Short Term Agriculture & Micro Credit: Short Term Agricultural Credit will be as per list issued by Agricultural Credit and Specialized Programmers Department (ACSPD) of Bangladesh Bank under the Agricultural C redit Programmed. Credit in the Agricultural sector repayable within 1(one) year will also be included herein. Short Term Micro Credit includes any micro credit not exceeding TK. 25,000. 00 and repayable within 12 months. 2) Basis for Loan Classification: (A) Objective Criteria (1) Past due/ over due: In this point we saw four factors those are; a) Any continuous loan if not repaid / renewed within the fixed expiry date for repayment be treated as past due/ overdue from the following day of the expiry date. ny demands loan if not repaid/ rescheduled within the fixed expiry date will be treated as past due/ overdue from the following day of the expiry date. b) In case any installment of a fixed term loan (repayable within fives) is not repaid within the fixed expiry date, the amount of unpaid installment will be treated as past due/ overdue (defaulted instilment) from the following day of the expiry date of the particular installment. c) Incase of any installment or part installment of a Fixed Term Loan (repayable over five years) is not repaid within the fixed expiry date, the amount of unpaid installment will be treated as past due/ overdue after 6(six) months of the expiry date of that particular installment. ) The Short Term Agriculture & Micro Credit if not repaid within the fixed expiry date for repayment will be considered as past due/ over due (defaulted instilment) after 6(six) month of the expiry date. (B) Qualitative Judgment; If any uncertainty or doubt arises in respect of recovery of any continuous, Demand or Term Loans the same will have to be classified as Sub- Standard or Doubtful or Bad/ Loss. Considering the merit of the A/C on the basis of qualitative judgment be it classified or not on the basis of objective criteria. The Bank will classify on the basis of qualitative judgment and can be- classify loans if qualitative improvement does occur.But if a loan classified by Bangladesh Bank inspection Team, the same can be de- classified with the approval of the Board of Directors of the Banks. CIB Report: Before making credit report to the head office the lending branch takes the credit information to the borrower from the CIB (credit Information Bureau) of Bangladesh Bank and other financial institutions. For obtaining this report the branch sends Inquiry form' to CIB duly filled in particulars of the borrower. The report id divided into 5 segments. Project appraisal: It is the reinvestment analysis done by Banker before a project is approved. Project appraisal in the Banking sector is needed for following reasons:  ¦To ensue repayment of the Bank finance To achieve the organizational goals  ¦To establish industrialists in a country. The main tasks of the project appraisal is to justify the soundness of an investment by the Banker by means of a capital and systematic of the different elements of the Project For this purpose Banks use two types of analysis:  ¦Lending Risk Analysis (LRA)  ¦Spread Sheet Analysis (SSA) Lending risk analysis: Lending risk analysis is modern methodologies, which describes how to access the risks that are inherent any credit extension and how to access the likelihood that the customer will repay a loan. The LRA form contains 16 pages to analysis different categories of Risks.The Financial Sector Reform project introduces the lending Risk analysis format in 1993. LRA is a standardize format for analyzing the credit worthiness of a borrower and the likelihood that the borrow will repay. Bangladesh bank issued a letter number BCD (p) 611/13/290 dated 17-07-1994, which now makes it mandatory for the commercial Banks to implement the LRA approach to credit analysis prior to extending credit facilities to a Borrower. The modern concept of lending is purpose and production oriented and not security oriented. The emphasis should be given not any security rather on he likelihood of repayment, the credit worthiness of the customer soundness and viability of the business etc. Lending PrinciplesThe Principle of lending is a collection of certain accepted time tested standards, which ensure the proper use of Investment fund in a profitable way and its timely recovery. Different authors describe different principles for sound lending. 1. Safety 2. Security 3. Liquidity 4. Adequate yield 5. Diversity Process of Investment |Heads |Characteristics | |Application |Applicant applies for the Investment in the prescribed form of the bank describing the types | | |and purpose of Investment. |Sanction |Collecting credit information about the applicant to determine the credit worthiness of the | | |borrower. Sources of information | | |Personal Investigation, Confidential Report from other bank, Head Office/Branch/Chamber of | | |Commerce. | | |CIB (Central Information Bureau) report from Central Bank. | | |Evaluation of compliance with its lending policy. | | |Evaluating the proposed security. | | |LRA is must for the Investment exceeding one crore – as ord ered by Bangladesh Bank. | |If everything is in accordance the Investment is sanctioned | |Documentation |Then bank prepare a Investment proposal which contains terms and conditions of Investment for | | |approval of H. O. or Manager. | | |Takes the necessary papers and signatures from borrower | |Disbursement |An Investment Account is opened. Where customer | | |A/C—————————————————————————————Dr. | | |Respective Investment A/C —————————————-Cr. |FOREIGN EXCHANGE DEPARTMENT Introduction: One of the largest businesses carried out by the commercial bank is foreign trading. The trade among various countries fills for close link between the parties dealing in trade. The situation calls for experti se in the field of foreign exchange operations. The bank, which provides such operations refereed to as rending international Banking operation. Mainly trisections with overseas countries are respects of import, export and foreign remittance come under the preview of foreign exchange transaction, and international trade demands a flow of goods from seller to buyer of payment from buyer to seller.In this case the Bank plays a vital role to bridge between the buyer and seller. Foreign Exchange Mechanism in Flow Chart: Sales/Purchase contract Issues L/C Forward Forward documents Makes payment Makes payment Foreign Exchange department of EXIM Bank is department of all departments. This department handles various types of activates by three separate sections: 1. Import Section 2. Export section 3. Foreign Remittance. Import Section: The functions are of the section is mainly to deal with various components such as  ¦ Letter of Credit (L/C)  ¦ Payment against Document (PAD)  ¦ Payme nt against Trust Receipt (PTR)  ¦ Loan against Imported Merchandise (LIM) Letter of Credit (L/C): Definition:A letter of credit can be defined as an arrangement where in a Bank Guarantee on behalf of these customers to make payments to the beneficiary upon presentation of documents specified in the credit. Parties involved in L/C: Opener/ Buyer/Importer: The person who opens the L/C is known as opener/ buyer/importer of the L/C. The buyer and the seller conclude a sales contract providing for payment by documentary credit. 0pening Bank: The Bank issuing the L/C in favor of exporter is known as opening Bank. The opening bank opens L/C on request of importer according to application of the importer. Advising Bank: The Bank through L/C is advised their agent (correspondent Bank) abroad.The duty of the advising Bank is to authenticate the message so that is to the seller can act on it without any fear of forgery etc. Beneficiary: Seller and exporter in whose favor the L/C are opened. The beneficiary is normally the seller of good who receive payment under documentary credit. If has compiled with terms and conditions thereof. Negotiating Bank: The Bank that is authorized to handle (purchase) the documents under the L/C in the exporting country is known as negotiating Bank. L/C will stipulate either a notified bank to negotiate (restricted L/C) or any bank can negotiate in the seller’s country (unrestricted L/C). Reimbursing Bank: The Bank that is (by the L/C issuing Bank) to effect reimbursement is known as reimbursing bank.Reimbursing Bank authorized to honor the reimbursement claims in settlement of negotiation/ accepting/ payments lodged with its by the paying/ negotiating/ accepting Bank. Confirming Bank: A Confirming Bank is one which adds the guarantee to the credit opened by another bank. Therese undertaking the responsibility of payment/ negotiating/ acceptance under the credit in addition to that of the issuing Bank. A confirming Bank normally doe s so it requested by the issuing Bank. Types of L/C: – Revocable/ irrevocable L/C – Confirmed/ unconfirmed L/C. – Transferable L/C – Back to back L/C – Acceptance L/C – Revolving L/C – Red clause L/C – Green close L/C The EXIM Bank basically deals with irrevocable L/c. which can not be amended or cancelled by the issuing Bank at any moment and without prior to the beneficiary.It also deals back to back L/C, which is the letter of credit, provided by the exporter to the import the raw materials from abroad in order to produce the exportable commodity for the importer. Procedures for opening L/C: Application for opening L/C: An importer who is desirous to import goods from foreign country will apply Issuing Bank for opening a L/C. The importer will provide an application mentioning the following aspects: 0 Full particulars of applications Bank account. 0 Types of business 0 Historical background 0 Amount of required L/C limit 0 A mount of L/C margin. 0 Term of payment 0 Name of imported goods 0 Repayment schedule and source of fund Document schedule and source of fund.An importer or L/C opener has to submit the following documents 0 Application from (provided by the Bank) 0 Import registration certificate 0 Pro-forma invoice 0 Four sets of IMP from 0 Insurance cover not 0 VAT registration number 0 Tex registration number 0 Letter of credit authorization form Examination for opening L/C: Application must be carefully checked by the concerned officer considering the facts mentioning below: ? The terms and conditions of L/C applications are consistent with exchange control and import trade resolution UCPDC 500. ?Illegibility of imported goods ?The L/C must be opened in favor of importer ?That is signed by the importer and agreed with the terms and conditions. Indenting registration number ?Goods are not of Israel and vassals to be used are not of Israel ? Insurance cover note with date of shipment. ?Whether RC is up to date or not ?Whether IMP form is duly filled up and singed ?The imported goods are marketable After scrutinizing all thee legal aspects necessary entry is given to the margin register and charge, commission and margin in realized. Transmitting the L/C: The L/C is transmitted to the advising Bank for advising the L/C to he beneficiary. L/C is generally transmitted through tested Telex of Fax. Before transmission of final examination of the L/C contents is

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Whether the Aboriginals should self-government or not Free Essay Example, 1750 words

Inuit was brought under federal responsibility in 1939 while MÃ ©tis was not under any jurisdiction federal or provincial. The 1867 Act had established two levels of government: federal and provincial and left no room for a third form of government. The government adopted a policy of assimilation up to 1950s thus ignoring most of the important ideals held by Indians. The mandate to make Decision was given the minister of Indian affairs and northern development. Further policy changes were made in 1969 where devolved services and programs as well as the special status for Indians were terminated (Wherrett n. p). Lack of the inherent right of Aboriginals as Aboriginal people led them to begin agitating for self-government in the 1970s. Though Aboriginals and aboriginal treaty rights were recognized in the Constitution Act, 1982, different views existed as to what constituted aboriginal self-government. For some it was a way of solving their problems but to politicians it was denying them some of the powers. According to Russell (3) some supported the Act due to sympathy for the Aboriginals while others rejected it out of fear of losing their homes. We will write a custom essay sample on Whether the Aboriginals should self-government or not or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now Many of the Canadians Aboriginals included did not have a real understanding of the term self-government. Section 35 of the Act was exclusively for dealing with Aboriginal affairs. It affirmed Aboriginal treaty rights and defined the people of Canada as Indian, Inuits and MÃ ©tis. The Indians was divided among those with treaties and those who did not have. The MÃ ©tis on the other hand, were divided by the issue of land base. They differed over whether prairies history and lifestyle were defining characteristics than blood relations while the Inuit were divided according to how lands were dispersed and governed (3). The Nunavut territory joined in 1999 to reconcile some of these differences among Aboriginal People. The Act also stipulated clearly that treaty rights included rights that existed in way of land claim agreements and that the Aboriginal and treaty rights were to be gender neutral. The first ministers were to hold conferences to identi fy and define the rights of Aboriginal people but as it shall be proven later, these ministers were not willing to engage in such issues. By the time the final conference was held in 1988, no proposals had been presented by these leaders or ministers. Worse still, no constitutional amendments had been effected for identification and definition of rights of Aboriginal people (Russell 5).